ARTHUR C. CLARKE, CREATOR OF HAL THE COMPUTER
DISCUSSES THE FUTURE MAN AND THE MACHINE
Arthur C Clarke
A man working with the computer and hearing a computer reply as my friend Hal did, this is going to become more and more extensive, more and more complete. And perhaps the time will come and will we in the machines will sort of pass in opposite directions and there'll be a transition point will come beside us and a man and machine or machine and the man.
CU FINGERS TYPING ON EARLY COMPUTER. CU EARLY
CU INSIDE EARLY 1970s ELECTRONIC DIGITAL
COMPUTER. TRANSISTORS. RESISTERS. CONNECTORS.
MILES OF WIRE. LASER MEMORY SYSTEMS. LASER
TECHNOLOGY. IBM PARTS.
COMPUTER OPERATORS TYPING ON KEYBOARDS CIRCA
1971. CU NUMBERS TYPED ON SCREEN.
MONTAGE BUSINESSES USING COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY,
1971. HOTEL. RESTAURANT. SHOP.
DOLLY THROUGH OPEN PLAN OFFICE, MANY COMPUTER
OPERATORS, ALL FEMALE, AT DESKS
MIT MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
EDWIN FREKIN ?SP TALKS ABOUT COMPUTERS AND
THE FUTURE. HOUSEHOLD ROBOTS IN THE FUTURE.
CUTS TO DRAWINGS SHOWING HOUSEHOLD ROBOT LIGHTING
WOMAN'S CIGAR, VACUUMING, PERFORMING HOUSEHOLD
CHORES. ROBOT AS A GUARD BARKS LIKE A DOG
EDWARD FREDKIN INTERVIEW: ***
In the near future. We're dying to see computers and machines that use computers as parts of the machines of being able to do more and more interesting things. And one good example of that would be a little household robot, that would be very helpful to have in the home. Now you might say, Well, who would want such a household robot? My guess is that almost every family that has a home would like one of these once they understood how good it could be.
Such a machine would be a lot nicer than one would think what it would do in the early versions, it would wander around the house when no one was there usually vacuuming they would vacuum the rugs and sweep the floors and pick up stuff. It could pick up dirty clothes and found and take it down to the laundry room. And more advanced versions would make beds and set the table and clear the table loading the dishwasher and so on. In addition, such machine would never need sleep, it would be quietly wandering around making sure nothing's amiss in the house looking for fires, checking for burglars, and so on.
We think that the kinds of machines that we're building computers will eventually have most of the characteristics of life in some sense. They'll be able to think that we'll be able to design and build new machines and what would be the next step in evolution on this planet may be a new species, if you like that's very different, not biological, not genetically related to anything else on the planet. But which will be a great advance if you like in terms of capability.
ROBOT "SHAKY". TELEVISION PICTURE ROBOT POV.
BUILT BY THE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE SECTION
OF THE STANFORD RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF CALIFORNIA
ROBOT'S TASK IS TO PUSH A BOX OFF A PLATFORM.
PUSHES A RACK INTO PLACE, THEN PUSHES THE BOX
ONTO THE PLATFORM.
ARTHUR C. CLARKE TALKS ABOUT MACHINES AND
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE. WILL MACHINES BECOME
AS INTELLIGENT AS WE ARE?
Arthur C Clarke
Any machine that can make decisions choices, which can behave in a way which is not predictable by its designers. And there are many machines like this now has a very rudimentary form of artificial intelligence. The question is, how far will this intelligence develop when it becomes intelligent, when machines become as intelligent as we are assuming that we are intelligent and sometimes one doubts this? I think that most of the people in the computer field certainly the younger people believe that we will have intelligent machines and there is no limit to the intelligence which machines may ultimately develop.
AUTOMATIC FACTORY COMPUTERIZED ROBOT PERFORMS
TASKS FASTER AND WITH GREATER PRECISION
ARTHUR C. CLARKE TALKS ABOUT MAN'S DESCRIPTION
AND PREDICTION OF THE FUTURE
Arthur C Clarke
Almost invariably, attempts to describe or predict the future have been incredibly conservative, short sighted, when one looks back on them. scientific progress technology, which is one way of measuring the future, I suppose, goes much further than anyone ever would have dreamed. One example I'm very fond of giving his predictions about the future of the motorcar at the beginning of this century, it was pointed out that the automobile would be of no use except in the city. Because there were no roads outside the city. This is what I mean by failure of imagination or fundamental invention can totally transform the future.
HEAVY URBAN TRAFFIC
AIRPLANE AIR CANADA COMES IN FOR A LANDING,
TAXIS. BAGGAGE UNLOADED.
AIRPORT COMPUTERIZED RESERVATION SYSTEM. PASSENGERS
LINED UP AT RESERVATION. COMPUTERIZED ARRIVALS,
CU 1970s COMPUTER SCREEN WITH AIRLINE ARRIVALS
DOLLY THROUGH AIRLINE COMPUTER INSTALLATION. WALL
OF COMPUTER. PRINT OUT. PRINTER.
CU COMPUTER PUNCH CARDS, MACHINE PROCESSING PUNCH
HISTORICAL RECREATION. 1801 FRENCH WEAVER USING
COMPUTERIZED LOOM. CU PUNCH CARDS. INFORMATION
CONVEYED BY HOLES PUNCHED INTO CARDS. WEAVER
WEAVING PATTERN ON LOOM.
CU PRESSING BUTTONS, PLAYING TIC-TAC-TOE WITH A
COMPUTER. ONTARIO SCIENCE CENTER. HIPPIES TRY
TO BEAT COMPUTER
CU COMPUTER PRINT OUT
CU COMPUTER PARTS.
CU PRESSING COMPUTER BUTTONS.
WORKERS IN FILM STORAGE VAULT TAKING FILM CANS
FROM STORAGE SHELF
MONTAGE COMPUTER OPERATORS PERFORMING TASKS
CROWDED CITY STREETS. 1971
PRINTING PRESS. NEW YORK TIMES NEWSPAPER
CU EARLY 1970s COMPUTER. MAN TYPING ON KEYBOARD
CU COMPUTER PRINTOUT
NEW YORK TIMES NEWSPAPERS COMING OFF THE
PRINTING PRESS. PRINTER PICKS ONE UP. LOOKS
AT IT. CU NEW YORK TIMES NEWSPAPER
MONTAGE COMPUTERS AT WORK IN VARIOUS BUSINESSES.
CU COMPUTER CARD. CU USING PUSH BUTTON PHONE.
BANK TELLERS. OFFICE WORKER FILES PAPERS IN FILE
PROFESSOR FREEDKIN ?SP AT HOME WITH COMPUTER
DO IT YOURSELF HOME ENTERTAINMENT. SET UP SWITCHES
TO A PATTERN, TURN IT ON, IT PLAYS A TUNE.
BILLIONS OF PATTERNS YOU CAN SET UP. TURNS MACHINE
ON, PLAYS A TUNE. 1970s TECHNOLOGY
INTERVIEW WITH EDWIN FREDKIN IN HIS HOME:
The way this machine works is you set up these little switches to a pattern. And then you turn it on. And it plays a tune according to whatever pattern you set up. And there's many many patterns in the billions and billions that you can set up and each one corresponds to a different tune. And some of the tunes are very quick and repeat just a few notes and others will last for years before they repeat. I have the set right now to a pattern that was found by my son a long time ago and is the best toon anyone's ever found since and so we call it Michael's tune and I'll turn it on and play it for you.
Now, when you listen to a turn like this, you can control such as if you'd like it to play faster, you can make it play a little faster like this and play slower. So in control the tempo and you can control the pitch. And of course, by changing these positions, you can get all kinds of different toons. The box on the right plays a different color of light or different combination of light colors for each note, and each combination thereof corresponds to a given note. The first kind of computer technology that's been applied to the home instead of two weapons or guided missiles, or business, computers, and so on. Now, it's only the first, and with time, we're going to see more and more human applications of computer ideas. And there'll be a great development of machines that make life even more human than humans can make it. That may seem paradoxical. But we can make machines that deal with all the aesthetic sides of life. For example, we could make a machine that composes piano music and plays it. I would like to hear what Chopin would have written if he looked out the window during today's snowstorm, from my house in Brookline, and the machine thinks about that for a while, and composes a new kind of notching that might have been done by Chopin in his style, and you said like it played by list, and it remembers how this played the piano, and it composes it and plays it for you why not? That's all in the cards for the future if someone will pay attention to technology applied to the aesthetics,
GIRL SITS IN AWE OF 1970s COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY
DRAWING SHOWING MACHINE THAT COMPOSES MUSIC
1970s COMPUTER GRAPHICS,
COMPUTER WHICH CREATED THE STARGATE CORRIDOR
IN 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY" DEVELOPED BY JOHN
WHITNEY. WHITNEY TALKS ABOUT BUILDING HIS OWN
COMPUTER. COMPUTER ANIMATION.
JOHN WHITNEY INTERVIEW:
I have energized relay here and this is this is the Bank of amplifiers that drive the server modem of the system
the computer, which created the star gate character in the film 2001 was developed by the man behind these glasses, John Whitney, is three sons and his brother James have all used his machines to make computer films. The witnesses are not inhibited by the specter of giant computer companies. They build their own.
They're hardly to be called computers because they're really specialized problem solvers. They were computers that were designed to compute only on one kind of an equation. For many years, I had been doing straight animation using the hand drawing techniques or primitive forms of manipulation of artwork in one way or another some of the things that Norman McLaren has done, in fact, I've drawn on directly on film. And but it was only in the mid 50s, when I began to see these devices that it became clear that there were great possibilities for developing animation machines that would manipulate design in ways that could never be done by hand, as drawing almost a perfect circle here, and now many cycles later, it might be drawing a straight line path. The fact that it's putting this kind of motion, as a series of images on one motion picture frame at a time means that it gets on the screen in quite a different way than it is here. The fact that this is a circle pattern does not mean that the image generated by this pattern will be a circle on the screen, it'll be some sort of a complex overlay pattern of a whole series of circles, or some sort of a flowing Halftone Pattern possibly. I'm also working with the modern digital computer systems through their my research grant from IBM. And there I am using a completely electrical solid state electronic system, which involves no mechanical moving parts to speak. And there, I get to the heart of the problem. There are mathematical equations that generate very, very elegant images, very, very elegant designs.
WHITNEY CREATES COMPUTER ANIMATION ON MACHINE
THAT CAN MANIPULATE IN WAYS THAT COULD NEVER BE
DONE BY HAND.
1970s COMPUTER GRAPHICS, ANIMATION.
PROFESSOR FREEDKIN TALKS ABOUT MAN STARTING TO
UNDERSTAND COMPUTER SCIENCE
The computer field has gotten to the point where we do things, we build things, we make them work, and we've had very little understanding, but we're beginning to get a glimmering and that glimmering is fantastically exciting. And why is it exciting? Well, because not not because if you like that we're going to build better computers, and not because we'll make them faster. And so but because when we look around the world, we see all kinds of phenomena, things that happen in this world that we've had difficulty understanding that we're going to be able to explain aim with this new science that we havent even thought of yet.
Description: WRITER-AUTHOR ARTHUR C. CLARKE & SEVERAL COMPUTER EXPERTS OPTIMISTICALLY APPRAISE FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS & USES OF COMPUTERS. CLARKE CONJECTURES THAT BY THE YEAR 2000 THE COMPUTER WILL HAVE SURPASSED THE CAPACITY OF THE HUMAN MIND IN SOME WAYS, BUT THAT IT WILL FREE MAN OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW TYPES OF CONSCIOUSNESS. FUTURISTIC VIEW. EARLY COMPUTERS, TECHNOLOGY. COMPUTER GRAPHIC ANIMATION
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